Lichen Dyes

Sometimes good things come to those who wait.

Umbilicaria dyed wool
Umbilicaria dyed wool

Last spring  the Pacific Northwest suffered some severe ice storms that brought down big trees and lots of branches. This caused problems for many people, but there was an upside for me. With the downed branches came menageries of dye lichens, some of which are not easy to come by – especially in such abundance.

When lichens that normally thrive in tree tops are relinquished to the forest floor they will lie there with the branches and be consumed by the natural forces of decay. I try to limit my lichen collecting to the wind-fallen or excessively abundant types.

Evernia prunastri collection
Evernia prunastri collection

Over the course of spring, every time I went out to harvest nettles or cottonwood buds, I would bring a little bag and fill it with Evernia prunastri, the Staghorn Lichen. Once home, I’d lay my collection out to air dry and store it for later. Evernia prunastri is sage colored lichen that if left to soak in a mixture of water and ammonia, will slowly develop into a beautiful electric lilac dye. Purple mushroom dyes are rare in the PNW, so this is a welcome addition to the dyers pallet. Technically lichens are weird fungi that require a dependent relationship with certain algae for survival; but that is another story entirely.

Late March of last year, while checking my Verpa bohemica patch, I found huge, old cottonwood trees crisscrossing this usually open creek side forest. Many of the fallen tree tops were decorated with the striking and elusive Xanthoria lichen. In the tree tops, this lichen grows pressed flat against the bark in 2-5inch circles of golden-chartreuse with tiny speckles of lime green discs that are the reproductive structures of the organism. It is often seen much smaller on tombstones and boulders in arid conditions; places where it is best left for the enhancement of the landscape. But here in the humidity of the little river valley it had grown large and abundantly, now littering the wetland where it would soon deteriorate to a patch of slime on the bark. The misty conditions that day made the lichen pliable and slightly less tedious to harvest, but even after a couple of hours I had only collected about a quarter cup.

Xanthoria sp.
Xanthoria sp. on Cottonwood bark

Xanthoria also requires an extended soak in diluted ammonia to activate the color potential. So one day last April, I made up the lichen ammonia mixes. Though they immediately turned bright colors, I knew the colors I was after would take time to develop. The first few weeks I shook the jars daily, but after a while I neglected them. When I remembered, I checked in them again and after a couple of months the Xanthoria solution was a juicy red and the Evernia a deep burgundy. I had read that ammonia lichen dyes needed to be exposed to oxygen to develop their maximum purple potential, so I set it out over night with the lid removed, and in the morning put the lid back on and shook it some more. Within a few days it transformed to the color of purple kool-aid.

Evernia prunastri after a couple of months in ammonia solution
Evernia prunastri after a couple of months in ammonia solution

I was very excited to try it out, but I was moving – so into a box it went, and was carried by car all the way from Seattle to Massachusetts. Once unpacked, I’d shake it occasionally and open it for a few hours every once in a while; the colors deepened.

While in Massachusetts I was introduced to Umbilicaria, affectionately known as Rock Tripe – another ammonia activated dye lichen. I was given a couple of jars full, that I processed in the same way as the others. Essentially in the same pattern of attention and neglect. Almost a year later, and another cross-country trip, I decided to finally dye with the ammonia dyes. They looked to delightful in the jars; red juice, grape kool-aid and blackberry wine.

In a double boiler I heated up the ammonia lichen mixtures, adding water to allow for the wool to move freely in the half-gallon jars. I simmered the pot for an hour, until they were as bright as they were going to get. I let the wool sit in the dyes overnight and rinsed them in the morning.

Umbilicaria sp, Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria sp fresh out of the dye-pot
Umbilicaria sp, Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria sp fresh out of the dye-pot

Straight out of the jars, the dyes were spectacular.  The Umbilicaria produced a blinding magenta wool and the Evernia was an amethyst violet. As for the Xanthoria, well that produced a special and strange dye. Once removed from the dye-pot, rinsed and set to dry in the sun, it immediately began to show a cyanotic bluing, as though the life was draining from its powder pink glow. The color first took on subtle lavender tones and eventually completely turned a pale slate blue; its lovely warm pink blush forever gone.

Xanthoria changing
Xanthoria changing
Lichen dyes after drying
Lichen dyes after drying


38 thoughts on “Lichen Dyes”

  1. This is so incredibly fascinating, thank you! I’ve recently decided to start exploring lichen dyeing for a sweater that I finished the other day (undyed wool). Browsing around online and I stumbled upon this. I’m excited to dive in. Also appreciate your honesty, I too follow a pattern of attention and neglect for a lot of my projects (sourdough especially) 😉

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  6. Dyeing a rainbow of regional color:  Using 10 species of mushrooms and lichens and established recipes, we will dye 15 or more samples a full spectrum of color. We will talk about the best dye fungi, where to look for them and how to process them for optimal dyes.

  7. Hey, it’s wonderful experience! Could You give the proportions of water and ammonia? I Would like to experiment witl local lichen. Thank You!

  8. It is interesting dying with lichen. At the moment I have several different species and some jars with lichen, water and ammonia waiting for dying wool. I am wondering whether you use the whole content of the jar (inclusive the mix of water and ammonia) for dying. By my first experiment I took only the fermented lichen for dying but the color was not so intense.

  9. Lovely website, so happy to have found you.
    Very timely as I have a gal. Jug full of lichens.
    Carry on , great story’s interesting.

  10. Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed!
    Extremely useful information particularly the last part 🙂 I
    care for such info a lot. I was seeking this particular information for a long time.

    Thank you and best of luck.

  11. Having searched for how to use oak moss lichen I found your site
    Thank you I have about 1000grams dried to use
    Sadly your site does not give the quantity of oak moss lichen to what quantity of ammonia and water
    This would have been very helpful you give the method but not the quantities
    I am loath to waste this precious lichen so if you could give the quantities please

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  17. Hello,I log on to your blogs named “Lichen Dyes – Mycopigments” regularly.Your story-telling style is witty, keep up the good work! And you can look our website about love spell.

  18. Years ago I used lichen to dye wool. I live in New Zealand and collected what is growing on dead branches dropped from trees. My tap water is soft. I would simmer water with lichen and wool and it turned a beautiful orange. It was a very successful dye and easy. This was one of my favourites.
    I am still dyeing and experiment a lot. I have more experience now and an expanding collection of lichen. Thank you for your details of the method you used. I feel inspired to try out something new. I am particularly looking for reds but also keen to just explore what happens. Attractive colours are always welcome.

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  20. I have several oz of orchil lichen from Sweden, I successfully died wool yarn and wove a throw. It is (reddish purple)
    How do I use this lichen to dye silk?

  21. Great site!!! I’ve been collecting lichen in new Jersey. For years I’ve wanted to join the SCA (reinactment community) . Started researching a potential character. Had to find a non mollusc natural purple dye to proceed. Thank you ever so much!

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  23. I am interested in using lichens for Eco prints on wool and silk…..After soaking in ammonia and water , do the lichens themselves have any pigment left ?? Many thanks . Alice

  24. I have just started this myself, one source said 50/50 ammonia to water, e.g. 100ml ammonia 100ml water, the source then said leave a gap at the top if the container of air. I have started this and so far it appears to be going well!

  25. I found this very useful as I had collected a pile of staghorn lichen from downed branches. However, after five months I’m still waiting for the purple colour to develop from the ammonia solution. I shake now and then and leave the top off now and then but it’s still a watery brown. I’m sure it was the right lichen but maybe not…

  26. Yes, also curious as to ratios of ammonia to lichen and how much lichen to dye x amount of wool. Great info and colors

  27. Wow what fabulous colours. I am curious to know the ratio of ammonia and water? that you use for your ammonia mixtures. I am very excited to have discovered your site and will eagerly explore it further. A huge thank you for posting and sharing your results.

  28. Wow. I really like your blog. Science like and craft like.
    Did you mordant at all? Do you know if the outside temperature could effect the colour change with the Xanthoria? It is a colour I really like for over dying with cochineal for a very pretty lilac.

    Great work.

  29. Very cool. After a strange dream about the dispute of the color Chartreuse, searching the web for lichen on granite found my way to your lovely mycopigments. I never knew there was any such thing as mycopigments. Thank you for sharing. Magenta is my favorite color. I never would have guessed it could come from nature in such a round about way. Good on ‘ya.

  30. thank you for sharing your experiences. your site is beautiful and inspiring. the photos are striking and educational. do you sell the photos?
    i am just beginning to experiment with color from plants and have found a bit of staghorn lichen. can you please tell me how much one needs to dye a few, maybe four ounces of wool? what is the ratio of water and ammonia?

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